Here’s a basic breakdown of the most important factors for ranking on Google, and which ones are more important than others. Happy to see that quality and keywordliness of the page content is still a top factor. (#3 on the list.) That’s the factor that site owners have the most direct control over. If you build the best page on a certain topic, you still have a good chance of ranking well, regardless of your site’s popularity or other factors. However, if Google is comparing your page to competition that’s of similar quality, then links and popularity (#’s 1 and 2 on the list) might be the deciding factor.
Here’s the main infographic behind the survey. MOZ has a lot more info at the Ranking Factors 2015 main page.